Root Rot Disease Incited by Macrophomina phaseolina in Arid Legumes and their Management: A Review
*Corresponding Author: Mahabeer Singh, Department of Plant Pathology, SKN College of Agriculture, SKN Agriculture University, Jobner-303 329, Rajasthan, India, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is a soil- and seed-borne pathogen that causes charcoal rot and various rots and blights of more than 500 crop species. Dry root rot (DRR) also called as charcoal rot which causes yield loss ranged from 25-48 per cent. The pathogen is necrotroph and infects a wide range of crops. It is observed that mycelium of M. phaseolina in cotyledons, plumule and radicle, in the naturally infected seeds of mungbean and cowpea. The disease symptoms are clearly visible from the time of emergence and can be evaluated at various stages of development of the plant. The mechanical plugging of the xylem vessels by microsclerotia, toxin production, enzymatic action and mechanical pressure during penetration lead to disease development. Management of M. phaseolina aim to reduce the number of sclerotia in soil or to minimize the contact of the inoculum and the host. Soil solarization can be a cost-effective method for management of soil borne diseases. Disease suppression by biocontrol agents such as Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride and Bacillus subtilis are the sustained manifestation of interactions among the plant, the pathogen, the biocontrol agent, the microbial community on and around the plant and the physical environment and considerably inhibited growth of M. phaseolina. Essential oils and plant extracts contain a multitude of bioactive substances against fungi, bacteria and nematodes. It has been reported that neem oil, turmeric and garlic was effective against M. phaseolina in in vitro condition. Chemical control is an effective method when seed treatment and foliar spray of carbendazim, topsin M-70, captan, thiram, mancozeb, copper oxychloride against root rot and leaf blight (Macrophomina phaseolina) topsin M-70, captan, thiram, mancozeb, copper oxychloride against root rot (Macrophomina phaseolina). As non-chemical alternative methods can be time-consuming and less effective against soilborne plant pathogens. Chemical control is an effective method of controlling some soilborne diseases in agricultural crops. Varoius workers are reported compatibility of biocontrol agents with fungicides and found that Carbendazim and biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride, T. harizianum were found effective under in vitro and pot condition.
Disease, Macrophomina phaseolina, Microsclerotia, Necrotroph, Phaseolinone.